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Overview

BIO 264

Section 1.1: Study Guide Section 1.1 Objective: 9 Learn definitions for common anatomy & physiology vocabulary

1.1 – TERMINOLOGY x

Be able to recall each of the terminology and vocabulary terms provided for you in sections 1.1.1 – 1.1.6 including each of the Body Organ Systems,

Anatomical Position Directions, Anatomical Divisions, Cavities, and Planes, Prefixes, Suffixes, & Abbreviations. Prepare to answer questions that require

x

you to pick out the correct definition of a term or a question that gives you a definition and asks you to match it to the correct term. You may want to make flashcards of each term to help you memorize them. Be able to apply knowledge of the terminology to a clinical situation.

Example:

If a surgeon made an incision that started at the shoulder and then moved distally, what structure would be exposed? a. A bone like the clavicle on the chest *b. A bone like the humerus in the arm c. Flesh near the neck and ear d. Flesh over the lateral ribs

Take BIO 264 Quiz 1.1

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BIO 264

Section 1.2: Study Guide Section 1.2 Objectives: ü Explain homeostasis and each component of a homeostatic control system. ü Explain negative and positive feedback loops.

ü Apply understanding of negative and positive feedback loops to clinical examples.

1.2 - HOMEOSTASIS 1.2.1 – Homeostasis Defined •

Be sure you can explain what homeostasis is and give examples. Be prepared to recognize examples of homeostasis that are different from those given in the reading. This might be a good place to read more about what homeostasis is in any reference book or through internet research.

1.2.2 – Homeostatic Control Systems •

Be sure you can explain how all of the components of a homeostatic control system work. It will be important that you can explain each component in actual examples. As a way to assess that you truly understand these components, you may be asked to identify components in homeostatic control systems that are not in the reading. Be sure you can clearly explain and give examples of the following: o Receptors o Stimuli o Control Center o Effectors o Afferent Pathways o Efferent Pathways

1.2.3 – Feedback Response Loop •

Be sure that you can explain what negative and positive feedback loops are . Be able to give examples. It is recommended that you study examples of positive and negative feedback in your chosen reference materials and online studies. As a way to assess your deep understanding of these concepts, you may be asked to identify negative and positive feedback in scenarios and examples that are not part of the readings or practice quizzes.

Take BIO 264 Quiz 1.2

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BIO 264

Section 2.1: Study Guide Section 2.1 Objectives: 9 Understand what matter is and how to read a periodic table of the elements. 9 Understand the structure of an atom and how the atomic mass and the atomic number can be used to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in various elements and their isotopes. 9 Explain how electrons are configured in electron shells and how the chemical properties of an element are

9

9

determined by the number of electrons in the outer shell. Define cation and anion and understand how changes in the number of electrons of any given element impact its stability and electrical charge of an ion. Understand how atoms combine into molecules or compounds through ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds, nonpolar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds

2.1 – MATTER x x

Describe what matter is and define an element. Be sure you can read a periodic chart of elements and memorize the element names for the following symbols: H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe, P, S, and Cl.

2.1.1- Subatomic Particles x

Be sure you can explain how the subatomic particles of protons, neutrons, and electrons are organized in an atom and their unique roles and characteristics.

x

Explain what an atomic number, mass number, and isotope are. o Using the periodic chart, be able to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in any given element, isotope or ion.

2.1.2- Electron Configurations x

Be able to describe how electrons are organized around a nucleus in orbitals that have different energy shell levels and how the electron configuration determines interactions with other atoms. After reading this section, do you fully understand how you would go about answering questions like the following? o How many electrons would be in the outer shell for the element Fluoride? (Answer: 7) o How many electrons would need to be added to the outer shell of Fluoride to make it have a full outer energy shell? (Answer: 1)

2.1.3 – Chemical Bonds Page 1

BIO 264 x

Be sure you can explain how atoms combine into molecules or compounds through ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds, nonpolar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds. Be able to compare and contrast these very clearly. You may consider creating a chart of each bonds unique characteristics and examples.

x

Define cation and anion and understand how changes in the number of electrons of any given element impact its stability and its electrical charge. What is the “rule of 8”?

x

Test your understanding of chemical bonds (You may need to do some internet research): Imagine that you have a container of water. It has O2, CO2, some NaCl that is not yet dissolved and some NaCl that is dissolved in it. Could you sketch out this container of water with these things and explain and label the following:  polar covalent bonds  nonpolar covalent bonds  ionic bonds  hydrogen bonds  cations and anions * Did you catch the double nonpolar covalent bonds in your sketch?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 2.1

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BIO 264

Section 2.2: Study Guide Section 2.2 Objectives: 9 Understand the unique characteristics of water, water’s role in chemical reactions and the structure of the water molecule. 9 Explain how water’s heat capacity and heat of vaporization help to stabilize body temperature. 9 Identify the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances.

9 9 9

Explain how electrolytes are ionized and their role in body processes. Determine the difference between a solvent and a solute and how to calculate the concentration of solutes. Develop a solid understanding of the mole, molecular mass, molarity, and osmolarity.

2.2 – WATER 2.2.1 – Chemical Characteristics of Water x

Explain the structure of a water molecule and how important the polar covalent bond is for this molecule structure. Understanding the polar charge will help you understand ionization.

x

Describe how hydrogen bonding links water molecules to one another. What is the maximum number of water molecules that can bind together in hydrogen bonds when water is in the form of an ice, a liquid, and a gas?

Stabilizing Body Temperature x

Explain Heat Capacity and how it helps to stabilize body temperature. o How many calories of energy are required to raise or lower the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius? o Define temperature in relationship to the motion of molecules. o How does what you have learned about heat capacity and temperature explain how your body can maintain a stable body temperature?

x

Explain Heat of Vaporization and how sweat works to cool our skin.

Adhesion, Cohesion, and Lubrication x

Explain water’s characteristics of adhesion, cohesion, and lubrication, and give examples of the function of these characteristics of water in the body.

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BIO 264 Chemical Reactions x

Don’t forget that water is critical for our body chemical reactions! Why?

2.2.2 – Water and Aqueous Solutions x

What is a solvent and a solute? Be sure this is very clear to you as we use these terms a lot coming up.

x

Define and explain hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. (We use these terms a lot coming up as well). Which bonds tend to be hydrophilic? Which are hydrophobic?

x

Explain what an electrolyte is and how it is ionized in water. Be able to recall electrolytes that are important to our body processes.

Solute Concentration x

Defining what “concentration of solutes” is in an aqueous solution is very important in physiology and medicine. Be sure that you really understand this section. Can you calculate the concentration of a solute using the three different methods described in the text?

x

What is “percent solution” and how is it different from “molarity” in describing how concentrated something is?

x

Develop a solid understanding of moles, molecular mass, molarity, and osmolarity. o Be sure you understand molarity - Because if you don’t really get molarity then, osmolarity will be much harder and if you don’t understand osmolarity, then tonicity is really hard later on and also electrophysiology gets really hard. In other words, this section is worth some extra internet research, tutor visits or whatever you need to really get it. We find that students who miss out on really good understanding in this section struggle in several other modules for Bio 264 and 265!  What is a mole?  What is molar mass? Be able to calculate the molecular mass of a compound.  What is molarity? How would you calculate how many molecules are in a solution?  What is osmolarity? How would you calculate how many particles are in molar solution?

x

Test yourself: Can you teach how to solve these questions below to someone who doesn’t know how to do it? The questions from the reading should be totally understood and easy for you to fully explain.

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BIO 264 Questions: 1. How would you prepare a 5% solution of glucose? 2. How would you prepare a 0.5 M solution of glucose? (molecular weight of glucose is 180 amu) 3. What is the osmolarity of a .15 Molar solution of NaCl? 4. How many grams of glucose are there in 0.1 moles of glucose?

Link to answers to Solute Concentration Problems

Take BIO 264 Quiz 2.2

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BIO 264

Section 2.3: Study Guide Section 2.3 Objectives:

9 9

Understand how an acid or a base can be defined by the concentration of hydrogen ion. Understand the critical need for pH to be balanced in the body and how the

9 9

concentration of hydrogen ion can lead to a state of alkalosis or acidosis. Explain how the bicarbonate buffer system works to maintain pH balance. Apply understanding of the bicarbonate buffering system to clinical examples.

2.3 – ACIDS, BASES, pH, and BUFFERS 2.3.1- ACIDS AND BASES x

Be sure you can explain what an acid is and what a base is using the concentration of hydrogen ion as explained in our reading. o Understand how water can split into hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxide ion (OH-) and how equilibrium is maintained.

x

What is a strong acid? What is a weak acid? Give examples of both acids and bases. Note how the arrows in the equations given in the reading indicate how completely that compound is dissociated in water.

2.3.2 - pH x

Understand the critical need for pH to be balanced in the body and how the concentration of hydrogen ion can lead to a state of alkalosis or acidosis. x

What is pH and what do the numbers mean? o Be able to define a neutral solution, acidic solution and a basic solution in relationship to H+ concentration. Can you give examples of substances for each of these solutions?

x

What is acidosis and alkalosis in the human body? o Recall that in a chemistry class, neutral will be a pH of 7. But in a human body, our neutral point is 7.35 – 7.45. So, yes, our body fluids are slightly alkaline when they are neutral.

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BIO 264 2.3.3 - BUFFERS x

Explain what a buffer is and how it works.

x

Explain how the bicarbonate buffer system in the body maintains pH balance. Be sure you can use the H2CO3 Å-Æ H+ + HCO3- equation to describe how the bicarbonate buffer works. o This is a very important buffer system in the body and we will use it a lot in A&P in upcoming modules. It would be a good idea to go ahead and see the full buffer equation and start thinking about it. The full equation is:

x

Apply understanding of the bicarbonate buffering system to clinical examples. Using what you know about pH and how the bicarbonate shifts to the right or the left to reach equilibrium, how might the buffer system work in each of the questions below? o If holding your breath made it so you could not exhale CO2, then what would happen to pH? o If vomiting which gets rid of stomach acid (H+) happened, what would this do to body plasma pH? o If diarrhea, which gets rid of HCO3- happened, what would this do to body plasma pH?

** This is a great section to spend time researching online to be sure you understand it fully!

Take BIO 264 Quiz 2.3

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BIO 264

Section 3.1: Study Guide Section 3.1 Objective: 9 Describe a carbohydrate and give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

3.1 – CARBOHYDRATES x

After reading section 3.1, describe, list, compare and contrast the following carbohydrates: Monosaccharide, Disaccharide and Polysaccharide. You may consider making a chart contrasting their basic various structures, how they are linked, how they are broken down, common examples, what foods they can be found in, how and where our bodies use them, etc. Include in your chart what you learn from reviewing the questions below and what is shown in the carbohydrate concept map in the reading.

3.1.1 – Monosaccharides x

What is the structure of the five most common monosaccharides?

x

Recall what the term saccharide and the suffix -ose refer to.

x

What is the role of the monosaccharide glucose in our bodies?

3.1.2 – Disaccharides x

Recall which monosaccharides make up each of the disaccharides.

x

Explain dehydration synthesis reactions and how this reaction bonds monosaccharides together.

x

Explain how disaccharides are broken down by hydrolysis reactions and how this chemical reaction is performed by sucrase, lactase and maltase. What part of the body can these enzymes be found?

x

Recall what the term “simple sugar” refers to.

x

What does it mean to be lactose intolerant?

3.1.3 – Polysaccharides Page 1

BIO 264 x

Recall the three main polysaccharides, their structures, their unique characteristics and their role in our body for each type.

x

Why are polysaccharides referred to as complex carbohydrates? What impacts how easily these carbohydrates are digested?

x

What is the unique role of cellulose in our diet? Where does it come from and why can’t we digest cellulose?

x

Understand the health implications of consuming the different forms of saccharides. o

In what ways are carbohydrates necessary and essential to the healthy functioning of our body?

o

Conversely, how are too many simple sugars and high-fructose corn syrup harmful to our body?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 3.1

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 3.2: Study Guide Section 3.2 Objectives:

9 9

9

Describe a lipid and discuss the unique characteristics of triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids. Explain fatty acids and explain how they can be saturated and unsaturated. Describe the unique characteristics of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

9

Explain “Cis” and “Trans” double bonds and how these bonds can affect the properties of a fatty acid. Explain what lipoproteins are and how they function in the body. Discuss LDLs and HDLs. Recall what a lipid profile is and the normal values expected in this profile.

3.2 – LIPIDS Study Tip: Be able to compare and contrast the unique functions, structure and characteristics of the different types of Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids and Lipoproteins. You may consider making a comparison chart similar to the one suggested for carbohydrates above.

The Nature of Lipids x

What are lipids and their structural elements? What are common examples of lipids?

x

What is meant by the term “hydrocarbon”? What type of bonds link molecules in lipids?

3.2.1 - Triglycerides x

What is a Triglyceride and its function in the body?

x

Explain the general molecular composition of a triglyceride. o What is a fatty acid? o How are fatty acids and glycerol bonds formed?

x

Explain the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fat. o What is the difference between a monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat?

x

Explain a Cis bond and a Trans bond and describe how a “trans-fat” can have similar characteristics to a saturated fat.

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BIO 264 How are trans-fats made? What are the health risks of consuming large amounts of trans-fats? o What are the health benefits of Omega 3 fatty acids? o

3.2.2 - Phospholipids x

What is a phospholipid? What is the molecular organization of a phospholipid? o Why do we say that phospholipids are amphipathic? o How are phospholipids organized to make a cell membrane?

3.2.3 - Steroids x

What is a steroid? Recall the molecular organization of cholesterol. o What are some examples of steroids?

3.2.4 – 3.2.5: Lipoproteins & Lipid Profile Values x

What are Lipoproteins? o What critical functions do lipoproteins perform in the body? o How do they transport lipids?

x

What is the difference between LDLs and HDLs? Be sure you know which lipoproteins is considered good to have more of and why.

x

Recall normal values for Total Cholesterol, HDL, Triglycerides, and LDL

Take BIO 264 Quiz 3.2

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 3.3: Study Guide Section 3.3 Objectives:

9

Describe what an amino acid is and how these amino acid monomers can be organized to form a protein.

9

Describe the levels of protein organization. Describe what an enzyme is and how enzymes function.

3.3 - PROTEINS x

What are proteins? Be able to recall the many functions of proteins and examples.

3.3.2 - Amino Acids x

What are amino acids? o Be able to recognize the molecular organization of an amino acid.

3.3.2 – Peptide Bonds and Polypeptides x

Describe what a peptide bond is and how it is formed. o What is a polypeptide? What is another name for a polypeptide?

x

Describe what an essential amino acid is. o Where does our body get these building blocks or amino acids from?

3.3.3- Protein Structure x

Be able to explain the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure of a protein.

Primary Structure x

What type of bonds link molecules of the primary protein structure together? What is an example of how important the sequence of the amino acids in the primary structure are?

Secondary Structure x

What are the two different secondary protein structures and what bonds form these structures? Give examples of each.

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BIO 264 Tertiary Structure x

Understand how the loops and folds of the tertiary protein structure are created by the hydrophobic and hydrophilic R-groups, hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and covalent disulfide bonds. o Why would a change in pH impact the protein structure?

Quaternary Structure x

Understand the structure of a Quaternary Protein. What is an example of this protein?

3.3.4 – Classes of Proteins x

Describe the two classes of proteins: Globular and Fibrous. Give examples. o What does it mean to say that a protein has been denatured?

3.3.5 - Enzymes x

What are enzymes? What do enzymes do and how do they do it? o What does the suffix -ase imply? o How does temperature and pH changes influence enzymes? o What are the names for enzyme “helpers”? How do they work?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 3.3

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 4.1: Study Guide Section 4.1 Objectives:

9

9 9

9 9

Explain the function, structure and relationship of each of the following cellular organelles: o Cell Nucleus o Endoplasmic Reticulum o Ribosomes o Golgi Apparatus o Mitochondrion o Lysosomes o Proteasomes o Peroxisomes o Cytoskeleton o Plasma Membrane Describe the components of the endomembrane system. Explain why the cell nucleus is considered the “control center of the cell” and how it is structured to protect its inner contents. Describe how DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus. Understand the Central Dogma of Biology and the process for how DNA is

9 9 9 9 9 9 9

transcribed to RNA and then translated to a protein. Define transcription and translation in a biological context. Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum Describe how the Golgi apparatus completes the processing of and transporting of proteins. Explain how the mitochondrion generates energy through ATP for the cell Understand how the lysosomes maintain an acidic environment to break down proteins. Describe the process of Proteasome Degradation to recycle proteins in the cell. Compare and contrast the structure and function of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubule filaments of the cytoskeleton.

4.1 – Cell Structures x

Create a concept map of each of the cellular organelles listed in the objectives above as you study this module. Include on the concept map a short description of the structure and function of each organelle and their relationships. o For instructions on making a concept map, watch this YouTube video: https://youtu.be/sZJj6DwCqSU o Before you start making your concept map, ask yourself how the following questions:  Can I organize the concept map to illustrate any physical relationships between organelles (i.e. the endomembrane system)?  What connections can I make between organelles that illustrate functional relationships (i.e. lysosome, proteasome, and peroxisome)?

Page 1

BIO 264 

x

How can I illustrate all of the module objectives listed above in my concept map? For example: Does my concept map show the relationship between DNA, RNA and proteins? Etc.

As you learn about the cell, you may also want to create your own analogy for remembering the different functions of the organelles of the cell. Some ideas for your analogy could include comparing the cell structures to a city, a factory or other specific businesses, a shopping center, a school, a zoo, an airport, a ship or a space shuttle, or a conglomeration of several analogies that work for you.

4.1.1 - The Cell Nucleus x

Describe how the cell nucleus is structured to protect its inner contents and how substances can be transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.

x

Explain why the nucleus is known as the “control center of the cell.” What are genes? How are they turned on and off? What happens if an error is made when copying gene messages?

x

Describe how DNA is structured with in chromosomes inside the Nucleus.

x

Be able to explain the Central Dogma of Biology and how DNA is transcribed to RNA and then translated to a protein. o What do translation and transcription mean in a biological sense? o List the specific steps of the process of DNA transcription and translation to a protein: going from a gene, to message, to a polypeptide, to a functional protein, to a secreted protein and the organelles involved in this process. o How does what you learned in Module 3 about the structure of a protein relate to this process?

4.1.2 - The Endoplasmic Reticulum x

Describe the several functions of the Endoplasmic Reticulum. o What are the activities that occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum?  What are the main functions of ribosomes? o What are the activities that occur in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Page 2

BIO 264 4.1.3 - The Golgi apparatus x

Describe how the Golgi apparatus completes the processing of and transporting of proteins. What are the functions and structure of the Golgi apparatus? Which other parts of the cell does the Golgi apparatus interact with?

4.1.4 - The Mitochondrion x

Explain how the mitochondrion generates energy through ATP for the cell.

x

Understand the unique structure of the different mitochondrion regions: Outer Membrane, Intramembranous Space, Inner Membrane, Cristae and Matrix

4.1.5 – Lysosomes, Proteasomes, and Peroxisomes x

Explain how the lysosomes maintain an acidic environment to break down proteins.

x

What is the role of peroxisomes?

x

Describe the process of Proteasome Degradation to recycle proteins in the cell.

4.1.6 - The Cytoskeleton x

Compare and contrast the structure and function of the three major filaments of the cytoskeleton: o microfilaments o intermediate filaments o microtubule filaments

Take BIO 264 Quiz 4.1

Page 3

BIO 264

Section 5.1: Study Guide Section 5.1 Objectives:

9

9

Explain the Fluid Mosaic Model of the cell membrane and the structure and role of various parts of the cell membrane.

Describe the G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) complex and the processes it uses to signal or activate a cell.

5.1 Structure of the Cell Membrane Study Tip: Draw and label a diagram to illustrate each of the structures of the cell membrane discussed in Section 5.1 as you learn about them.

5.1.1- Fluid Mosaic Model of the Membrane x

Be able to describe what is meant by the ‘fluid mosaic model’ of the cell membrane. What contributes to the ‘mosaic’? Why is it important to understand that the membrane is fluid?

5.1.2 - Membrane Phospholipids x

Describe the composition of the phospholipid bilayer and what makes it selectively permeable. What affects the fluidity of the membrane? How does the body regulate the fluidity in varying temperatures and why is this important?

5.1.3- Membrane Proteins x

Understand each of the categories of cell membrane proteins, their unique roles, how they function and characteristics. Can you give an example of a protein fulfilling each of these roles? Include the following: o The difference between Peripheral or Extrinsic Proteins vs. Integral or Intrinsic Proteins. o Transport Proteins: Channel Proteins and Carrier Proteins o Integral Proteins Acting as Enzymes o Receptor Proteins o G Protein-Coupled Receptors (More on this receptor below!) o Attachment Proteins o Marker Proteins Page 1

BIO 264 G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) x

Draw out a step-by-step diagram of what is occurring in G-protein coupled receptor signaling. It may help to search the internet for “animation of GPCR signaling” to get a clear picture of what is occurring. o What is a ligand? o Can you name the different players involved in G-protein coupled receptor signaling and how they work together to send the signal? o How is the signal turned off? o What are some of the cellular processes in your body that utilize G-protein activation?

5.1.4 - Carbohydrates x

Describe the role and function of carbohydrates in the cell plasma membrane. o Define glycoprotein, glycolipid and glycocalyx and understand their different functions.

Take BIO 264 Quiz 5.1

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 5.2: Study Guide Section 5.2 Objectives:

9

9 9

9

Compare and contrast the various means employed by cells to move ions and molecules across the cell membrane utilizing different types of membrane proteins and the various methods of passive, active and bulk transport. Explain simple diffusion and the factors that impact the rate of simple diffusion of solutes. Explain facilitated diffusion and how solutes are transported through the cell membrane utilizing various types of carrier proteins and channel proteins. Describe the active transport processes used to transport solutes against their

9

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concentration gradient including specific examples of Primary Active Transport, Secondary Active Transport and Bulk Transport. Understand how the sodium/potassium ATPase pump works to actively transport solutes and the role this pump plays in relation to membrane potential Apply understanding of the movement of water across cell membranes by osmosis and distinguish between osmolarity and tonicity. Be able to identify if a solution is hypotonic, isotonic or hypertonic in comparison to body fluids.

5.2 Membrane Transport x

Make a chart to compare and contrast different methods of passive, active and bulk transport listed in sections 5.2.1-5.2.3. List examples of when each method is used to transport ions and molecules across the cell membrane. The questions in each section below will help guide you as you explore each of these transport methods. You may want to look up videos online on each method to better visualize how these transporters work. Include in your chart the following: o Passive Transport  Simple Diffusion  Facilitated Diffusion: x Channel Proteins (Ion-specific channels, Voltage-gated, Ligandgated, and mechanically-gated channels) x Carrier Proteins (Example: GLUT Transporters) o Active Transport  Primary Active Transport (Example: Sodium Potassium ATPase Pump)  Secondary Active Transport (Example: Sodium-Solute Symporter) o Bulk Transport:  Endocytosis: x Phagocytosis x Pinocytosis x Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Page 1

BIO 264 

Exocytosis

Passive vs Active Processes x

What is the difference between active and passive transport?

5.2.1- Simple Diffusion x

Explain simple diffusion and the factors that impact the rate of simple diffusion of solutes. o Define Simple Diffusion, Concentration Gradient and Diffusion Equilibrium.

 x

Can you give some examples of important molecules that will enter or exit cells via simple diffusion?

Factors of Diffusion: Explain in your own words the important factors that affect whether diffusion will occur and the rate at which it will occur.

5.2.2 – Facilitated Diffusion x

Describe Facilitated Diffusion. What does the word ‘facilitated’ mean in the context of ‘facilitated diffusion? What is being facilitated? o What are the two different ways facilitated diffusion occurs? o What are specific examples of both methods of facilitated diffusion?

x

Make a table that compares Carrier Proteins to Channel Proteins with regard to the following properties: o Specificity for solutes (how specific are they in ‘choosing’ the solutes they transport across the membrane) o Speed (which is faster?) o Saturated? (can they reach a maximum transport rate?) o Gated? (if so, what kinds of gates regulate the protein?) o Type of transport (can the protein move solutes ‘down’ or ‘up’ their chemical gradient?)

5.2.3 – Active Transport x

Describe the active transport processes to transport solutes against their concentration gradient. o What are the different forms of active transport? Page 2

BIO 264 o What is the DIRECT source of energy for primary active transport? o What is the DIRECT source of energy for secondary active transport?

Primary Active Transport x

Explain how Na+/K+ ATPase Pump works to actively transport solutes. o In which direction are Na+ ions moved? What about K+ ions? o How many Na+ and K+ ions are moved for each ATP that is hydrolyzed?

Secondary Active Transport x

How does the sodium concentration impact secondary active transport? o What do the terms symport and antiport mean? o What are examples of sodium-solute symport transporters?

Bulk Transport: Endocytosis x

What are the three types of endocytosis mentioned in the reading? How are they similar? How are they different? Name at least one example where cells of your body employ each of the forms of endocytosis.

Bulk Transport: Exocytosis x

What ion is critical in regulating exocytosis? How does it enter the cell?

5.2.4 - Osmosis x

Define in your own words the term ‘osmosis’ and osmotic pressure. o Fill in the blank: Water will move from areas of ______solute concentration to areas of ______high solute concentration. o Explain why water moves in the way described above.

x

Define Osmolarity. (How is it different than molarity?) o What is a hyposmotic solution? Isosmotic? Hyperosmotic?

x

Define Tonicity. (Take special care to understand how this term is different than osmolarity.) o What is a hypotonic solution? Isotonic? Hypertonic? o What happens to a cell in each of the preceding solutions? o What is a penetrating solute? o What effect does a penetrating solute have on tonicity? (Example: 5% dextrose).

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BIO 264 x

Complete the table found in your reading which compares the osmolarity and tonicity of various solutions. (Be sure to check your answers and understand why the answers are what they are).

SOLUTION

OSMOLARITY

0.9 % Saline 5% dextrose 5% dextrose + 0.9% Saline

0.45% Saline 5% dextrose + 0.45% Saline

Take BIO 264 Quiz 5.2

Page 4

TONICITY

BIO 264

Section 5.3: Study Guide Section 5.3 Objectives:

9

9

9

Explain the principles behind how an electrochemical gradient impacts the transfer of ions through a semipermeable membrane. Describe how voltage-gated ion channels open and close in response to changes in voltage or ion movement in the membrane.

9 9

Explain the role of the various protein carriers, protein channels, and ions involved in establishing the resting membrane potential, the graded potential, and the action potential. Describe each phase of the action potential as it depolarizes and repolarizes. Describe the process of how action potentials propagate from cell to cell

5.3 Introduction to Electrophysiology 5.3.1- Ions and Cell Membranes x

Be able to explain the principles behind how an electrochemical gradient impacts the transfer of ions through a semi-permeable membrane. Consider the following questions. o Define what Electrophysiology is and how a cell changes in electrical charge. o What proteins and ions are important in establishing the resting membrane potential?

x

Explain how charged ions are separated in the cell.

x

What does ‘potential’ mean in relation to the electrical properties of cells? o What is the difference between resting membrane potential and action potential?

x

Write in your own words what is meant by the term ‘electrochemical gradient’. Summarize the principles learned about ions diffusing across a semipermeable membrane from the two-chamber analogy given in the reading.

5.3.2- Membrane Potentials x

Using all that you learn from reading 5.3.2, explain the role of the various protein carriers, protein channels, and ions involved in establishing the resting membrane potential. Draw a diagram of the cell that illustrates the interactions involved in creating membrane potential in the cell. Include in your diagram the following: Page 1

BIO 264 o The action of the main transporters in regulating the exchange of Na+ and K+ in and out of the cell:  Sodium/Potassium ATPase pumps  Leaky Potassium channels  Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels  Voltage-gated Potassium Channels.  Cl- channels  Calcium (Ca++) Channels o How the difference in ion concentration inside and outside the cell impacts movement of ions and the electrical charge during different stages of activation.

Resting Membrane Potential x x x

Define Resting Membrane Potential. Explain how leaky K+ channels make the cell more negative. What is the biggest contributor to creating a negative charge within the cell at rest?

Membrane Potentials and Excitable Tissues x

What is the difference between an excitable cell and non-excitable cells and examples of each?

Protein Channels x x

What role do leak channels and gated- protein channels play in excitable cells? Explain the difference between voltage-gated, mechanical -gated, chemically-gated and ligand-gated ion channels.

Activation of Voltage Gated Channels x

Practice explaining in your own words the mechanism by which voltage-gated ion channels respond to changes in voltage or ion movement in the membrane. How do they open? How do they close?

Movement of Ions Through Protein Channels x

For a typical excitable cell (at -70mV membrane potential) predict the direction of the movement of the following ion through a protein channel (in or out of the cell), and the subsequent effect on if the inside of the cell would become more positive or more negative: o Na+ o Ca++ Hint: don’t forget to account for the chemical o K+ gradient and the electrical force acting on the ions o Cl-

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BIO 264 5.3.3 - Graded Potentials x

Why is a cell at resting membrane potential considered polarized?

x

Compare and contrast in your own words the terms polarization, depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization.

x x x

Describe the differences between graded potentials and action potentials. Test yourself: If a neuron typically has a resting membrane potential of -70mV: o What range of membrane potential voltages would be considered depolarized? o What range of membrane potential voltages would be considered hyperpolarized? o True or False: Graded potentials can be hyperpolarizing? o Name some examples of proteins and ions that could cause a graded potential.

5.3.4 - Action Potentials x

As you study Action Potentials, graph out what happens during each phase of the action potential wave. Label which ions are going out and which are coming into the cell and all the protein channels that are involved during each phase. Do you understand what is happening well enough that you could teach a friend about it?

x

How is an action potential different than a graded potential?

x

What protein channels and ions are important in the depolarization phase of an action potential? What protein channels and ions are important in the repolarization phase of an action potential? What causes the hyperpolarization phase of an action potential?

x

What role does the activation gate of the Voltage-gated sodium channel play in an action potential? How does this relate to the term ‘threshold’?

5.3.5 – Refractory Periods x

Explain the molecular mechanism that causes the absolute refractory period. o What causes the relative refractory period?

x

Can you think of an analogy from your everyday life that can help you explain the absolute and relative refractory periods?

5.3.6 – Propagation of an Action Potential x

Describe the process of how action potentials propagate from cell to cell. o How are action potentials like a row of dominoes falling?

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BIO 264 o Why do action potentials only propagate in one direction as they travel down an axon?  Hint: think about the absolute refractory period and the inactivation gate of the voltage-gated sodium channel.

x

What is myelin? What are nodes of Ranvier? What role do the following terms play in saltatory conduction?

x

Why might a neuron utilize saltatory conduction? What are the advantages?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 5.3

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BIO 264

Section 6.1: Study Guide Section 6.1 Objectives:

9

9

9

9

Explain the organization of the nervous system including the Central nervous system (CNS), Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Enteric Nervous System. Describe the process for information to be communicated between the CNS and PNS. Understand the role of the Efferent Neurons, Afferent Neurons, Control Center, Receptors, & Effectors. Explain the structure of a neuron (soma, dendrites, axon, myelin, axon terminals) and the neurons unique features in lifespan, metabolic rate and mitotic ability.

9

9

Describe how neurons are classified by structure and function. Structural Classification: Multipolar, Bipolar, Unipolar. Functional Classification: Sensory, Motor, Interneurons. Describe the neuroglia cells of the CNS and PNS (Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte, Ependymal Cells, Microglial Cells, Satellite cells, & Schwann cells) and their form, function and relationship with Neurons. Explain the process of salutatory conduction and how myelin sheaths speed up the sending of the action potentials along the axon Nodes of Ranvier.

6.1 – ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM x

Compare and contrast the structure and function of Neurons and Glial Cells.

x

Explain the organization of the Nervous System. Draw a concept map to diagram the nervous system and add details as you go through this module. Include anatomy structures involved, functions, unique features, general effects, and relationships. You will be learning more about the Autonomic Nervous System in Module 10 and can expand your concept map more then. Be sure to include in your diagram these main concepts: o The Nervous System  Central Nervous System (CNS) x Brain & Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) x Sensory (or Afferent) Division - Afferent Neurons x Motor (or Efferent) Division – Efferent Neurons:  Somatic Nervous System Page 1

BIO 264 



x

x

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) x Parasympathetic Nervous System x Sympathetic Nervous System Enteric Nervous System

Describe the process used for information to be communicated between the Peripheral Nervous System and the Central Nervous System. Add this relationship process to your concept map. What is the role of the afferent division? The efferent division?

6.1.1 – Neuron Structure and Classification: Explain the organization and unique features of a neuron. Draw your own picture of a neuron. Label all its parts and add details about each part: Soma, Dendrites, Axon, Microtubules, Myelin, Axon Terminals. x x x

What is the difference between anterograde and retrograde transport? What is the lifespan of a neuron? What does amitotic mean and why is this an important feature of a neuron? What is the metabolic rate of the neuron and how does it get energy?

Neurons can be classified by structure and by function. Compare and contrast the three structural classifications of neurons and the three functional classifications of neurons. What are the unique features or functions of each? Which branch of the nervous system are they found? Examples of each? Add them to your concept map! x x x x

Structure: Multipolar Bipolar Unipolar

x x x x

Function: Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Interneurons

6.1.2 - Glial Cells of CNS x

Glial cells are the main cell of the Central Nervous System and each has a special roll in assisting the Neuron. Compare and contrast the four types of glial cells (Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte, Ependymal Cells, Microglial Cells) and their form, function and relationship with the Neurons. Add what you learn to your concept map on the nervous system.

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BIO 264 o o o o

Explain the process of salutatory conduction and how myelin sheaths speed up the sending of the signal along the axon Nodes of Ranvier. Which cells produce and help circulate Cerebral Spinal Fluid? Which cell stores glycogen for energy for the neuron and helps maintain ion balance outside of the cell? Which cell helps repair injury?

6.1.3 – Glial Cells of the PNS x x

What cells from the CNS are Schwann Cells similar to? How is it different from this paired cell? What is the role and function of the Satellite Cell? Add these two cells to your concept diagram.

Take BIO 264 Quiz 6.1

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BIO 264

Section 6.2: Study Guide Section 6.2 Objectives:

9 9 9

Compare and contrast chemical and electrical synapses. Explain the concepts and mechanisms of synapse and the process of synaptic transmission. Explain summation and how the sum of the EPSP and IPSP contribute to the propagation of action potential in the

9

axon. Include understanding of concepts of spatial and temporal summation. Compare and contrast excitatory and inhibitory synapses, including types of neurotransmitters, membrane channels, ions and other factors involved in each.

6.2 - PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEURON 6.2.1 – The Synapse x

What is synaptic transmission and how does it generally work?

x

What is the difference between Chemical Synapses and Electrical Synapses? (How they happen, where they happen)

x

Describe in the process of chemical synapses. Pull out your drawing of your neuron from section 6.1 and expand it to add details about the following: o Label:  Presynaptic Terminal  Postsynaptic Terminal  Synaptic Cleft  Axon Hillock

x

Draw and Describe Each Step of the Synapses in Detail: 1. Initial Action Potential 2. Voltage-gated Ca++ channels 3. Neurotransmitters Released 4. Postsynaptic Channel Receptors 5. Signaling Change in Membrane Potential in Postsynaptic Terminal Page 1

BIO 264 Spatial Summation and Temporal Summation in Axon Hillock  How does it excite (EPSP)? How does it inhibit (IPSP)? 6. Transmission of Action Potential to Axon 7. Neurotransmitter Inactivation (broken down) and Recycled o

** There are several videos available online that show the process of synapses, summation and breakdown of neurotransmitters in action. Use these key words in some online research. Understanding the synapse will help you in your course this semester as well in future biology courses and labs.

6.2.2 - Summation x

x

x

x

Be able to explain summation and how the activation of an action potential in the axon depends on the net (or combined) signals of IPSP and EPSP received from the excitatory synapses and inhibitory synapses. o Compare and contrast Spatial Summation and Temporal Summation. o What effect does the IPSP and EPSP each have on the membrane potential? Compare and contrast Excitatory Synapses and Inhibitory Synapses in detail. Create a table or chart that shows the following: o Neurotransmitters of Each o Receptors Involved o Ions Involved o Is a second messenger system used? (How do these work?) o Effect on the Axon Potential (Depolarization or Hyperpolarization?) o Examples or Application Explain Long-term Potentiation. o How does it work? What ions and receptors are involved? o What is the clinical significance of LTP? Explain how modulatory synapses are “primed” and give an example of when they are needed.

Take BIO 264 Quiz 6.2

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BIO 264

Section 7.1: Study Guide Section 7.1 Objectives:

9

Understand the functions muscles perform in the body and how the properties of contractility, excitability,

9

extensibility and elasticity contribute to those functions. Compare and contrast the properties of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.

7.1 – FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF MUSCLE TISSUE x

List some of the many functions that muscles perform in our body. Which functions are you most grateful for?

x

What do the properties “contractility,” “excitability,” “extensibility,” and “elasticity” mean in relation to our muscles? o Test Yourself: Pick a normal everyday activity (getting a glass of water, reading a book, shaking hands, driving a car, etc.) and explain which muscles are being used and how each of the terms above is important in that process.

x

Compare and contrast the properties of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle found in 7.1.1 – 7.1.3. Create a table or chart that compares the properties of each type of muscle side by side. Compare the following features: o Voluntary or Involuntary? o Appearance? o Structure? o Location in the body? o Special features or attributes?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 7.1

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BIO 264

Section 7.2: Study Guide Section 7.2 Objective:

9

structure down to the intercellular features of skeletal muscle.

Describe skeletal muscle organization and the role/function of each of the many component parts from the largest

7.2 – SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGANIZATION x

Describe skeletal muscle organization and the role of each component part. o Download "Muscle Organization” image from your textbook (or, it is also provided at the end of this study guide) and complete the online tutorial to label your image.

7.2.1 – Gross and Microscopic Structure Identify the following muscle components, their role/function, and any unique characteristics from the largest component down to the cellular structure features of the skeletal muscle. Organize each structure into groups and understand the relationship or way they interact with one another to contract the muscle.  H zone (helle)  Myomesin  Muscle Fiber  M line (middle)  Titin  Myocytes  Thick Myofilaments (with  Dystrophin  Fascicles Myosin)  Sarcoplasmic Reticulum  Epimysium (Fascia) (SR)  Thin Myofilaments (with  Perimysium Actin)  T-Tubules  Endomysium  F-actin  Terminal Cisternae  Tendons  Troponin  Triad  Sarcolemma  Tropomyosin  Dihydropyridine (DHP)  Sarcoplasm channels (L-type calcium  Globular Actin (G-actin)  Myoglobin channels)  Myosin Binding Site  Myofibril  Troponin I  Ryanodine Receptor  Sarcomeres Channels (RyR)  Troponin T  A Bands (anisotropic)  Troponin C  I Bands (isotropic)  Alpha-Actinin  Z line or Z disc

o

x

Hint: Recall what each prefix and suffixes means to help you remember the definition of the term. Refer back to Module 1.6-1.7 if needed.

What are the 3 important properties of the myosin heads that help in the contraction of a muscle? Page 1

BIO 264 x

Which component contributes to the elasticity of a muscle?

x

Can you explain the structure of the Sarcomere and its role in contracting the muscle?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 7.2

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BIO 264

Section 7.3: Study Guide Section 7.3 Objectives:

9



Explain the steps of the Excitation Contraction Coupling in skeletal muscles including the following:  The release of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction,  How calcium is released from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum,  The action of the power stroke to shorten the sarcomeres  The action of the recovery stroke in cross-bridge cycling to contract skeletal muscles and

9

9

The concepts of the Sliding Filament Model of Muscle Contraction. Describe the process for how the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase and recycled. Be able to explain on a physiological level muscle contracture, rigor mortis and muscle cramps.

7.3 – NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING, SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY, CONTRACTURES AND CRAMPS 7.3.1 – Neuromuscular Junction, Excitation-Contraction Coupling, and Sliding Filament Theory x

Describe in detail the structure of the neuromuscular junction. o Download the “neuromuscular junction” image from your textbook (it is also provided at the end of the study guide) and complete the online image labeling tutorial to label your image. Identify the following:  Snare Proteins  Nerve Terminal  Acetylcholine  Muscle Fiber  Acetylcholinesterase  T-tubule  Choline  Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels  Acetic Acid  Ligand (Acetylcholine) Gated  Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Channels  Terminal Cisternae  Calcium and Sodium locations  Dihydropyridine Receptors Page 1

BIO 264 7.3.2 – Muscle Contractures and Cramps x

Be able to explain steps of the Excitation-Contraction Coupling o How is the contraction initiated? o Which neurotransmitter is critical to send the signal from the neuromuscular junction to the muscle fiber? o Which ion concentrations are critical for the contraction of the muscle and how, when, and where are they utilized? o Calcium is a key player in the sliding filament mechanism. Explain the process for how calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. o Describe in detail the process of the power stroke and recovery stroke.  What provides the energy for the power stroke?  How does the movement of the myosin head shorten the sarcomere and contract the muscle?  Explain the concept of the Sliding Filament Model of Muscle Contraction. o What is the importance of the recovery stroke and cross-bridge cycling?

x

How is the signaling of the muscle contraction turned off? Specifically, how is the neurotransmitter acetylcholine broken down and recycled?



Teaching Challenge: Can you teach a friend from memory about the details of the steps of the “Excitation-Contraction Coupling”? As you teach another person pay attention to the details that are still fuzzy to you or the questions that come to your mind. Take some time to research your “fuzzy questions.”



What are the situations that can lead to contractures? o Why is ATP vital in preventing the muscle from contracture?



What is rigor mortis what happens on a cellular level that leads to this condition?



What are the physiological differences between a muscle cramp and a contracture?

Take BIO 264 Quiz 7.3

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BIO 264

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BIO 264

Section 7.4: Study Guide Section 7.4 Objectives:

9 9

9

9

Explain how motor units are different for fine motor movements compared to large muscle movements. Describe the phases of skeletal muscle twitches (Latent, Contraction and Relaxation Period) and how muscle tone coordinates muscle movements. Compare isometric, isotonic, concentric, and eccentric muscle contractions and give example of when each type is used. Explain the factors that influence the force of muscle contraction including recruitment of motor units, wave

9

9

9

summation, initial sarcomere length, and muscle fatigue. Describe the four ways ATP is obtained for contraction: Cystolic ATP, Creatine Phosphate, Glycolysis, Aerobic/Oxidative Respiration. Explain the classification for speed of twitching of skeletal muscles into Type I, Type IIA and Type IIX and the factors influencing how quickly a muscle can respond. Distinguish between agonist and antagonist medications and be able to apply this understanding to clinical situation in predicting muscle response based on drug given.

7.4 – WHOLE MUSCLE CONTRACTION 7.4.1 – Motor Units  

Define a motor unit. How are they different for muscles that are involved in finemotor movements compared to large muscle groups? Explain how motor units would differ for small muscles used in detailed work and large muscles used in large less detailed type activities.

7.4.2 – PHYSIOLOGY OF A MUSCLE TWITCH 

Explain each phase of a muscle twitch. o What causes the delay in the latent period?



Explain muscle tone, how our muscles maintain it, and what muscle tone does for our bodies in coordinating movement. How does the body manage smooth muscle motions instead of choppy, jerking movements?

7.4.3 – TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION 

Describe the difference between isometric, isotonic, concentric and eccentric contractions and give example when each type of contraction is used. o How can a person increase their muscle strength? Page 1

BIO 264 o o o

How can a person increase their muscle size? How does a person increase their physical endurance? What is the difference between muscle hypertrophy and muscle atrophy?

7.4.4 – FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE FORCE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION 

Explain the factors for how a person controls the amount of force generated for each movement – like giving a handshake vs. hanging on tightly while climbing a rope. o How does our body recruit more motor units for larger tasks? o Explain wave summation in increasing force of a muscle contraction. How is this different from Tetany? o How does initial sarcomere length impact the force of a contraction? Explain what the term “length and tension relationship” might mean. Did you try the experiment with pinching your fingers?

7.4.5 – ENERGY SOURCE FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION 

Describe the four ways our body obtains ATP for contraction: Cystolic ATP, Creatine Phosphate, Glycolysis, Aerobic/Oxidative Respiration.

7.4.6 – FATIGUE  

What is the difference between central fatigue and peripheral fatigue, and how are they caused? Discuss activities that might contribute to low and high frequency fatigue. What else can contribute to muscle fatigue?

7.4.7 – SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER TYPES 

Explain how skeletal muscles are classified into Slow Twitch Oxidative (Type I), Fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (Type IIA), and Fast-twitch glycolytic (Type IIX) fibers. o Study the comparison chart on each type. What influences the speed that a muscle fiber can respond with or how resistant the muscle is to fatigue? o What are examples or functions of each type?

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BIO 264 7.4.8 – A Little Muscle Pharmacology 

Define Agonist and Antagonist. As you look at the chart in your reading about various drugs, pay close attention to the column “Method of Action.” Can you explain what would be happening on a cellular level to cause the drug to have the given result on the muscle?

Take Quiz 7.4

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BIO 264

Section 8.1: Study Guide Section 8.1 Objectives:

9

9

9

Explain the Energy Cycle and how the body creates energy from plants, the sun, oxygen, food and water and then returns carbon dioxide and water back into the cycle. Distinguish between oxidation and reduction reactions, as well as anabolic and catabolic reactions.

9

Describe what ATP is, its role in the body, and how ATP is created by both substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. Be able to describe the function and role of NAD+/ NADH and FAD/ FADH2 in metabolism.

8.1 – ENERGY CYCLE, ATP and ELECTRON CARRIERS x

Explain in your own words the details of the Energy Cycle. Make your own diagram or chart to illustrate this process. What are the key components going in/out of each part of this cycle? Use the questions below to help you fill in details. o How do humans get energy to power our body processes?  How are electrons important in this process? o Photosynthesis: Write an equation that shows the conversion of the critical molecules to energy throughout the process of the energy cycle.

x x

Do you understand how oxidation and reduction reactions are used in this cycle? Compare and contrast Carbon-Hydrogen Bonds and Oxygen Hydrogen Bonds. Which one makes the most energy? What is each used for? How does the body get energy (or electrons) from them?

x

Compare and contrast Anabolic and Catabolic reactions and their relation to energy or ATP.

x

How would you define Metabolism after studying this section?

x

Metabolism Overview – The “Big Picture” o

Review the Metabolism Overview Image (Found in the online text as well as provided for you at the end of this study guide). As you read through the study guide and this Module’s material, keep this image in hand and add labels, notes and details to help you remember each process.

Page 1

BIO 264 o

Be sure to watch the metabolism videos found in our course and be able to answer the review questions on the different metabolic processes.

o

If there are topics that are fuzzy to you, take some time to research online or from other resources the metabolic processes you don’t understand as well.

o

After you have completed the readings for this module, be able to sketch from memory the metabolic processes overview image and explain from memory what is happening in each process. If you can do this, you will know metabolism well enough!

8.1.1 – 8.1.2: ATP and electron carriers x

Define ATP, NAD and FAD molecules and their role in metabolism. o How do cells use ATP?  Explain phosphorylation and conformational change. x What is the chemical structure of ATP? How does ATP change during phosphorylation and what is its new name?  For what functions does our body use these processes?

x

What do the molecules NAD and FAD do? o Describe the reactions that NAD and FAD are involved in utilizing the terms oxidation and reduction.

x

What are NADH and FADH2, and what do they do? o What does the dehydrogenase enzyme do in the creation of NADH and what two ions are produced?  What happens to each ion? o What is the role of the vitamins Niacin and Riboflavin in the creation of NADH and FADH2?

Take Quiz 8.1 Below is the “Big Picture” of Metabolism. After going through this Module, see if you explain all of the processes from memory.

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BIO 264

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BIO 264

Section 8.2: Study Guide Section 8.2 Objectives:

9 9

9

9

Be able to summarize the metabolic processes of Glycolysis in detail. Calculate how many ATP can be derived from one molecule of glucose through the total process of metabolism and during each phase Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

Be able to describe the function and role of each of the following components in metabolism: o Pyruvate o Acetate o Acetyl CoA o Oxaloacetate o Carbon Dioxide (CO2) o Water (H2O) o Oxygen (O2) o H+

8.2 - GLYCOLYSIS x

What does our body use Glycolysis for? o Explain glycogenesis. In what form is glucose stored for later use? o Explain glycogenolysis. When does our body use this?

x

Energy is captured in how many ATP, NADH and FADH2 during the metabolism of one glucose molecule in Glycolysis?

x

Be able to explain the steps of Glycolysis illustrated in your reading. You may want to create your own chart or diagram to summarize what is happening in this process. o How does Glucose become trapped inside the cell?  Did you notice that though we are trying to make ATP (energy), ATP was required to bind the phosphate? Just as most things in life – you must put a little energy in to be able to get energy out. o

Explain the role of each of the following players in Glycolysis:  GLUT Transporter  The phosphate molecule  Glycogen  ATP  NAD+ and NADH  Dehydrogenase enzyme  Fructose  Pyruvate  Acetate  Acetyl CoA

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BIO 264  

The enzymes (shown in green): (you don’t have to know their names just what they do 😊) Describe the process of how phosphate is attached to the sugar molecules (shown in blue) as they are being broken down.

x

Explain the difference between substrate-level phosphorylation vs. oxidative phosphorylation? (You will need to finish reading 8.1.5 before being able to answer this question!).

x

Compare and contrast Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism. o What happens if oxygen is not present? Pyruvate Æ Lactate Æ Lactic Acid o What happens to pyruvate if oxygen is present? Pyruvate Æ Acetyl CoA Æ Citric Acid

Take Quiz 8.2 Below is the “Big Picture” of Metabolism. Can you explain all the steps of glycolysis that are part of this process of metabolism?

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BIO 264

Section 8.3: Study Guide Section 8.3 Objectives:

9 9

o o o o o o o o

Be able to summarize the process of the Citric Acid (Krebs Cycle) in metabolism. Be able to describe the function and role of each of the following components in the Citric Acid Cycle: o NAD+/ NADH o FAD/ FADH2 o Pyruvate

Acetate Acetyl CoA Oxaloacetate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O) Oxygen (O2) H+ Protein Synthase

8.3 – CITRIC ACID CYCLE x

Be able to explain the steps of the Citric Acid Cycle illustrated in your reading. You may want to create your own chart or diagram to summarize this process as well! It is helpful to research this process (and each of the processes from this module!) online in order to visualize how it works and understand the Citric Acid Cycle process in depth. o Why is this cycle called the Citric Acid Cycle? o

Why is it also referred to as the “Krebs Cycle”?

o

Explain the role of each of the following players in the Citric Acid Cycle  Pyruvate  Oxygen  Oxaloacetate  Coenzyme A (CoA): (Where did this enzyme come from?)  Acetyl CoA x Acetyl Group and CoA  Carbon Dioxide  Citrate  NAD+ and NADH  Phosphate  GDP  ATP  FAD and FADH2

x

What happens if oxygen is not present during the citric acid cycle?

x

How does this process continue to cycle? Page 1

BIO 264 x

Energy is captured in how many ATP, NADH and FADH2 during the metabolism of one glucose molecule in the Citric Acid Cycle?

Take Quiz 8.3 Below is the “Big Picture” of Metabolism. Can you describe all the steps of the Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycles that are part of the process of metabolism?

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BIO 264

Section 8.4: Study Guide Section 8.4 Objectives:

9 9 9

o o o o o o o o o o

Be able to summarize the process of the Electron Transport Chain in metabolism. Explain the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Be able to describe the function and role of each of the following components in metabolism and the electron transport chain: o NAD+/ NADH

FAD/ FADH2 Pyruvate Acetate Acetyl CoA Oxaloacetate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O) Oxygen (O2) H+ Protein Synthase

8.4 - ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN x

Be able to explain the steps of the Electron Transport Chain illustrated in your reading. You may want to create your own chart or diagram to summarize this process as well as spend some time researching this process online. o What is the significance of the mitochondria having an inner and outer membrane? o What happens to NADH and FADH2 at the electron transport chain? o Can you recall the names of the complexes that transport electrons? o What happens to H+ in the electron transport chain? o What is ATP synthase and what does it do? How does it work? o What is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain? o What would happen to the electron transport chain, citric acid cycle and glycolysis if there were no oxygen? Explain. x

Can you explain what oxidative phosphorylation is and the difference between substrate-level phosphorylation vs. oxidative phosphorylation?

x

Energy is captured in how many ATP, NADH and FADH2 during the metabolism of one glucose molecule in the Electron Transport Chain? o How does this compare with the other 2 processes? o How is the “ATP bottom line” different for anaerobic vs aerobic metabolism?

Take Quiz 8.4 Below is the “Big Picture” of Metabolism. Can you describe all the steps of the Electron Transport Chain in the process of metabolism? Page 1

BIO 264

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BIO 264

Section 8.5: Study Guide Section 8.5 Objectives:

9

9

Be able to explain the process of beta oxidation and when it happens.

Be able to explain protein metabolism

8.5 – LIPID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM 8.5.1 – Lipid Metabolism x

x

Be able to explain the steps of Lipolysis and Beta Oxidation illustrated in your reading. You may want to create your own chart or diagram to summarize this process and it is recommended to also research this process online so you know it well. x

What is Beta Oxidation?

x

What is Lipogenesis?

x

What is Ketoacidosis?

Using your understanding of how sugars and fats are metabolized explain how a diabetic person type I might get ketoacidosis.

8.5.2 - PROTEIN METABOLISM x

Be able to explain the steps of the Protein Metabolism illustrated in your reading. You may want to create your own chart or diagram to summarize this process and research this process online. o

Did you notice that the metabolism of proteins allows gluconeogenesis? Be able to explain this?

o

Metabolizing fats does not allow gluconeogenesis. Can you explain why?

Take Quiz 8.5 Page 1

BIO 264 Below is the “Big Picture” of Metabolism. Can you explain all the processes from memory?

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 9.1: Study Guide Section 9.1 Objectives:

9 9 9

9

Describe the organization of the Neuron Pathway of the Somatic Nervous System. Explain each step of how a movement is executed through voluntary control and the structures involved. Describe the basic components of a reflex arc, different types of receptors that are stimulated, and how these components generate a reflex response.

9

Compare and contrast the five different involuntary somatic reflexes: Stretch Reflex, Golgi Tendon Reflex, Withdrawal Reflex, Reciprocal Innervation Reflex and Crossed Extensor Reflex. Explain how all the reflex components work together to specifically generate each type of stretch. Define agonist and antagonist muscle groups. Explain Reciprocal Inhibition and how antagonist muscle groups are inhibited.

9.1 – VOLUNTARY AND REFLEXIVE CONTROL OF MUSCLES x

Describe the difference between voluntary and involuntary control.

x

Draw/diagram the organization of the Neuron Pathway of the Somatic Nervous System for both involuntary and voluntary control.

9.1.1 – Voluntary Control of Muscles 

Compare and contrast upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. x Where do upper motor neurons begin and where do they end? x Where do lower motor neurons begin and where do they end?

x

What types of motor symptoms would you get with damage to upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons?

x

Explain what a Motor Unit is. Describe how motor unit recruitment helps us adjust our strength output for the task at hand.

x

Explain each step of how a movement is executed through voluntary control: (1) planning, (2) initiation and (3) execution. Include key anatomy structures Page 1

BIO 264 and any accessory organs involved. Add to your drawing/diagram above details of these step. x What is decussation? x What are proprioceptors? How do they help us with successful movement?

9.1.2- REFLEXES x

Explain what a reflex is and why reflexes are needed to maintain homeostasis.  What is the difference between autonomic and somatic reflexes?

x

Describe the basic components of a reflex arc, different types of receptors that are stimulated, and how these components generate a reflex response. Recall the components of a reflex arc and what each component does.  Receptor x Can you explain the differences between mechanoreceptor, chemoreceptor, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors and nociceptors? Give examples of when each is used.  Afferent or sensory neuron  Control Center  Efferent or motor neuron  Effector

x

x

Understand what it means when we say a reflex is monosynaptic or polysynaptic. Give an example of each.

x

As you study the sections below, create a table to compare and contrast the five different involuntary somatic reflexes and explain how all the reflex components work together to specifically generate each type of stretch.

Stretch Reflexes x

Explain the steps of the stretch reflex. In your explanation, be sure to describe how the following components work:  What is a muscle spindle?  What is the difference between extrafusal fibers and intrafusal fibers structure and function?

x

Give an example of when the stretch reflex is used.

Page 2

BIO 264 x

Explain what is meant by alpha-gamma coactivation.

x

What is muscle tone?

x

Explain Reciprocal Inhibition. What are agonist and antagonist muscle groups? How are antagonist muscles inhibited?

Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) x

Explain the steps of the Golgi Tendon Organ reflex and add to your comparison chart on reflexes.  What is avulsion?  Is this reflex excitatory or inhibitory?  How does this reflex work? Can the reflex be overridden?

Withdrawal Reflex and Reciprocal Inhibition x

Explain the steps of the Withdrawal Reflex. Give an example of when is it activated?  What are nociceptors?  What are flexor and extensor muscles? How do they relate to what you have learned about agonist and antagonist muscles?

Crossed Extensor Reflex x

Explain the Crossed Extensor Reflex works.

o

Fill in any other details on your reflex comparison chart to show you understand these five reflexes. Add any other detail you learn from watching the videos for this module or other online research.

Take Quiz 9.1

Page 3

BIO 264

Section 10.1: Study Guide Section 10.1 Objectives:

9

9

9

Differentiate between the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Describe the conditions when each division is most active. Explain the organization and function of the autonomic nervous system.

9

Compare and contrast the anatomical and functional differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous systems. Be able to predict physiologic effects for major body organs following sympathetic or parasympathetic stimulation.

10.1 - ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 10.1.1 – 10.1.3: Structural Organization and Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System x

Compare and contrast the various divisions of the nervous system, with a focus on the autonomic nervous system. A proper understanding will include a knowledge of the following key terms: x Preganglionic/postganglionic x CNS neurons x PNS x Ganglia (Sympathetic Chain x ANS Ganglia, Collateral Ganglia, x Sympathetic nervous system Terminal Ganglia) x Parasympathetic nervous system x Brain/Spinal Chord x Somatic Nervous System x Dual innervation x Sensory System x Voluntary Motor System

x

Compare and contrast the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches of the Autonomic Nervous System. Recall the specific functions, organs involved and details of each branch. o Under what conditions is each branch of the autonomic nervous system activated? o What are the automatic responses of the body for each of these branches? o How are the preganglionic neurons, postganglionic neurons and ganglia different for each branch, and from the somatic motor neurons?

Page 1

BIO 264 o

Where do the neurons originate and to what organs are they connected for each branch? Explain dual autonomic innervation.

x

As you study the sections below, be able to compare and contrast the SNS and the PNS in terms of origin, neuron length, neurotransmitters released, and myelination. It is helpful to make charts, diagrams or drawings of the things you are learning and to spend time researching online things that you don’t understand well. Consider adding to your concept map that you started on the Nervous System from Module 6.

x

Describe the structure of the sympathetic division of the nervous system. o What neurotransmitters work with the SNS?

x

Explain the four routes taken by sympathetic axons traveling from the CNS to their effector organs. o Sympathetic Chain Ganglion Æ Spinal Nerve Æ Skin/Blood Vessels  What makes the communicans white or gray? o Sympathetic Chain Ganglion Æ Sympathetic Nerve Æ Organs of the Thoracic Cavity o Splanchnic Nerve Æ Collateral Ganglia ÆOrgans of Abdominopelvic Cavity o Splanchnic Nerve Æ Medulla Kidney Cells Æ Bloodstream  What would be the purpose and effect of having EPI and NE being directly released into the blood stream? o o o

x

Explain how parasympathetic neurons travel to their effector organs. Your explanation should make it clear why we often call the parasympathetic division the cranial sacral division. o o o o

x

What are the origins of the preganglionic neurons in the SNS? What are the various locations of the ganglia? What organs are “wired” by the SNS?

What is the origin of the preganglionic neurons? Which cranial nerves are involved and to which organs? What are the various locations of the ganglia? What are the different routes taken by the PNS to get to the target destination?

Discuss the structure and function of the enteric nervous system. In your explanation be sure to cover each of the following terms or concepts and their functions: o Myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus o Enteric sensory neurons and interneurons o Enteric motor neurons Page 2

BIO 264 x

How do these work together to facilitate digestion?

Take Quiz 10.1

Page 3

BIO 264

Section 10.2: Study Guide Section 10.2 Objectives:

9

9

Explain the main neurotransmitters of the ANS and the neurons that release them.

Describe the main receptors of the ANS and which neurotransmitters bind to them. Differentiate between cholinergic (nicotinic & muscarinic), and adrenergic α1, b1, and β2 receptors.

10.2 - PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ANS x

Explain the neurotransmitters and receptors of the autonomic nervous system. Your explanation should cover each of the following terms or concepts: o ACH o Norepinephrine and epinephrine o Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors

x

Be sure you understand the following terms: o Cholinergic neurons and receptors o Adrenergic neurons and receptors o Agonist and antagonist

10.2.1 - Neurotransmitters of the ANS x

You should be able to compare and contrast the various neurotransmitters utilized by the ANS. Are these neurotransmitters used elsewhere in the body? Also note the exceptions to rules of the ANS and PNS neurotransmitters.

10.2.2 - Receptors of the ANS x

Be able to distinguish between the various receptors of the ANS. o Cholinergic receptors  What are the differences between nicotinic and muscarinic receptors? x How did they get their names? x What neurotransmitter activates both of these receptors? x What is the difference between Nicotinic N1 and N2 receptors? o Adrenergic. Receptors  What neuro transmitter activates adrenergic receptors?  What are the differences between Adrenergic Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Beta 2 receptors? Which inhibit and which excite the organ?

Page 1

BIO 264 x x

Which receptors go with which branch of the ANS? Which neurotransmitters bind to which receptors? You should also be able to predict whether a response will be excitatory or inhibitory based on receptor type.

Take Quiz 10.2

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 10.3: Study Guide Section 10.3 Objectives:

9

9

Be able to predict physiologic effects for major body organs following sympathetic or parasympathetic stimulation.

Be able to predict the effect of a medication on the nervous system and the body based on your understanding of antagonist and agonist responses, as well as cholinergic, adrenergic and nicotinic, α1, b1, and β2 receptors.

10.3 - ACTIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM x

Be able to explain the effect of a drug that acts as an agonist or antagonist. For example, what would the effect of a muscarinic antagonist be? Or an alpha 1 agonist?

x

Be able to recognize the complex regulation of both the PNS and SNS on certain organs of the body including: o Eyes  What effect does relaxation of the ciliary muscles have on your vision?  What effect does contraction of the ciliary muscles have?  Which receptors/branch of ANS activate each of these responses? o Blood vessels  How are the blood vessels signaled to constrict or dilate?  What is the effect of stimulation of alpha 1 and/or beta 2 receptors?  How can blood pressure be controlled medically using this knowledge? o Sweat glands  Which branch of the ANS activates sweat glands?  Which receptors activate generalize sweating? How about localized sweating? o Heart  What type of receptors are in the heart?  What effect does a muscarinic agonist have on the heart? How about a muscarinic antagonist? o Lungs  What is special about how beta 2 receptors are activated?  How does albuterol inhalers work on the lungs to help someone experiencing asthma or difficulty breathing? o Stomach and Intestines  Which branch of the ANS has the greatest /effect on the digestive system? Page 1

BIO 264 

What effect would a muscarinic agonist have on the GI tract?

10.3.1 – A Table of Actions for the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions x

Your text gives a table highlighting the effects of the ANS on various body organs, including the receptors associated with a particular response. Pay close attention to what type of receptor goes to each part of the body listed and the effect that activation of that receptor does. Do you notice any patterns?

10.3.2 - Various Drugs Used to Modify the Actions of the ANS x

A list of common drugs used to regulate the actions of the ANS is also given in this section. This is provided for your education and understanding. This list is not comprehensive and is provided for your information only (not meant to be memorized).

x

From both charts in the text, be able to recognize what kind of an effect an antagonist or agonist drug may have on the organ and the receptor.

x

Go through the Guided Practice Questions for the Autonomic Nervous System. If there are areas that are still unclear for you, take some time to research them online or in other resources.

Take Quiz 10.3

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 11.1: Study Guide Section 11.1 Objectives:

9

9

Understand the basic structural anatomy of the brain.

Understand the general function and attributes of all prominent anatomical brain regions.

11.1 - OVERVIEW OF THE BRAIN AND CEREBRUM x

Understand in general what the brain is and does and recall the location of the following major regions of the brain: Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Brain Stem and Cerebellum.

x

Study tip: You may want to create a concept map or a brain diagram of all that is learned in this module on the brain.

x

x

Be able to identify anatomical features of the cerebrum and their purpose, including the following: x

Hemisphere

x

Cerebral cortex

x

Fissure

x

Medulla

x

Frontal lobe

x

Grey Matter

x

Parietal lobe

x

White Matter

x

Temporal lobe

x

Projection fibers

x

Occipital lobe

x

Commissural

x

Insula

x

Gyri

x

Association fibers

x

Sulci

x

Basal Nuclei

fibers

Explain how the brain works, EPSP and IPSP, and the role of each of the structures above in brain processing.

11.1.1 - CEREBRAL CORTEX Describe the main functions of the cerebral cortex. Be able to describe distinct regions within the cerebral cortex, including location and which lobe correlates with what behaviors or function. From what you learn, can you see how damage to a specific lobe would impact those functions? You should include motor, sensory, and association areas. Page 1

BIO 264 x

Motor areas o

How is movement controlled? What are the unique roles of the Prefrontal Cortex, Premotor Cortex and Primary Motor Cortex in initiating movement?

o x

body have a greater proportion assigned to them? Sensory Areas o

x

How is the Primary Motor Cortex organized? Which parts of the

Which senses does the Primary somatosensory cortex process? 

Primary Visual Cortex



Primary Auditory Cortex



Primary Olfactory Cortex



Primary Gustatory Coretx

Association Areas o

What is the main role of the sensory association area?

x

What are the executive functions of the brain?

x

Explain the Lateralization of the Cerebrum. o

Describe the application (including a comparison / contrast) of both motor and sensory homunculi.

Take Quiz 11.1

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 11.2: Study Guide Section 11.2 Objectives:

9

9

Understand the basic structural anatomy of the brain.

Understand the general function and attributes of all prominent anatomical brain regions.

11.2 – DIENCEPHALON, BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLUM x

Be able to identify the location of the following components of the diencephalon: Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Epithalamus.

x

What are the unique functions of each of these areas?

x

Be able to identify the location and function of the following: Brainstem, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata and Cerebellum. o Brainstem: Made up of the midbrain and hindbrain, the brainstem regulates basal body functions. Be able to describe regions and functions of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. o Midbrain: Understand the various regions composed of the corpora quadrigemina (a region comprising the paired superior and inferior colliculi), the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus. o Pons: Understand its function in the regulation of sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium. o Medulla Oblongata: Understand the Medulla Oblongata’s function as the primary control center for heart and lungs. o Cerebellum: Understand its function in the fine tuning of motor coordination.

Take Quiz 11.2

Page 1

BIO 264

Section 11.3: Study Guide Section 11.3 Objective:

9

Understand the function of the following: limbic system, reward center, reticular activating system.

11.3 - THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL NUCLEI AND RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM 11.3.1 – The Limbic System

Responsible for the attributes generally associated with the “natural man”, this system is involved in memory, reproduction and emotional processing. A correct understanding will include an understanding of the following structures: HIPPOCAMPUS - learning, cognition, spatial memory AMYGDALA - episodic and autobiographical memory, social processing and fear REWARD CENTER - comprised of the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, amygdala, septal nuclei, medial forebrain bundle NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS - reward, pleasure, addiction, placebo VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA - novelty, intense love AMYGDALA SEPTAL NUCLEI MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY: Be able to recall the 4 factors that determine “addictiveness”. Be able to recall the major “Brain Changes” that may occur in addiction. What makes internet pornography addictive?

11.3.2 - THE BASAL NUCLEI 

Discuss the following types of brain waves and understand the basic significance of each one:  Alpha wave  Beta wave  Theta wave  Delta wave



Discuss the following types and stages of sleep and understand the significance of each one: 

Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep Page 1

BIO 264 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep    



11.3.3 - THE RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM o o

How would you describe the location of this system? What is the function of this system? Can you give some examples?

Take Quiz 11.3

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 11.4: Study Guide Section 11.4 Objectives:

9

9

Describe the different types of memory and learning.

Explain higher brain functions of sleep and memory.

11.4 - HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: THE EEG, SLEEP AND LEARNING 11.4.1 – The Electroencephalogram (EEG) o

What is an EEG? When do we generally see each of the discussed wave frequencies?

11.4.2 – Sleep o o o o o

What might be the purpose of sleep? What is the difference between REM and NREM sleep? What type of brain waves are generally found in the different stages of sleep? What stage of sleep does sleep walking and night terrors occur? How much sleep is “needed”?

11.4.3 – Memory and Learning Discuss the aspects of learning and memory and understand the meaning and significance of each one of the following: o o o o o o o

Learning Memory Explicit Implicit Short-term processing Long-term processing Working memory

What is consolidation of a memory?

Take Quiz 11.4 Page 1

BIO 264

Section 11.5: Study Guide Section 11.5 Objectives:

9 9

9

Examine the origin and destination of cranial nerves. Describe the formation and circulation of cerebral spinal fluid.

Describe the meninges of the brain and the characteristic symptoms of trauma associated with various meningeal layers.

11.5 – THE MENINGES, CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID AND CRANIAL NERVES 11.5.1 – 11.5.2 The Meninges and Cerebral Spinal Fluid x x x

Describe the Meningeal Layers and where they are. Describe where the cerebral spinal fluid is in relation to the meninges. What are the functions of cerebral spinal fluid?

11.5.3 – Traumatic Brain Injury and Cranial Bleeds Describe how the meninges are related to each of the following: x x x x x

Epidural Bleed Subdural Bleed Subdural Bleed Subarachnoid Bleed Intracerebral Bleed

Recall common mechanisms of injury for each of the types of bleeds listed above.

11.5.4 – Cranial Nerves Be able to recall the name, number and function of each cranial nerve. Be able to recall the descriptions and cranial nerve involvement for each clinical condition described in the reading.

Take Quiz 11.5

Page 1

BIO 264

Section 12.1: Study Guide Section 12.1 Objectives:

9

9

Describe the location, structure and function of taste receptors.

Explain the olfactory pathway.

12.1 - THE SENSE OF TASTE AND SMELL 12.1.1 – 12.1.2: Taste and Smell x

Discuss the different types of lingual papillae.

x

Explain what a taste bud is and then explain the physiology of taste for each of the five major categories of tastants.

x

What is capsaicin? How does it work and what contributions does it make to oral sensation?

x

Describe how the perception of taste is transferred to the sensory cortex.

x

Discuss the location, structure and organization of olfactory epithelium.

x

How do we process smells? In this explanation be sure to thoroughly discuss the following terms and concepts: o o o o

Olfactory neurons (large variety of genes) Receptors cAMP Olfactory Bulb and Olfactory Cortex

Take Quiz 12.1

Page 1

BIO 264

Section 12.2: Study Guide Section 12.2 Objective:

9

Describe the structure and function of the optical and neural components of the eye.

12.2 - VISION: STRUCTURE OF THE EYE 12.2.1 – Anatomy of the Eye x

Describe the structures and functions of the following optical components of the eye: o o o o o o o

Aqueous humor Vitrous humor Cilary Body Ciliary muscle Cornea Pupil Lens

o o o o o o

Iris Choroid Sclera Retina Optic disc Fovea Centralis

12.2.2 - Focusing Light on the Retina x

Explain how the eye can adjust through the process of accommodation to view both near and far objects. o What are the near point of vision and far point of vision? o What three things must happen to focus on an object less than 20 feet from the eye?

x

Compare and contrast the following condition: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. o What are some possible causes of each of these conditions?

Take Quiz 12.2

Page 1

BIO 264

Section 12.3: Study Guide Section 12.3 Objective:

9

Describe how photons of light are converted to action potentials.

12.3 – CONVERT LIGHT TO ACTION POTENTIALS 

Explain what you have learned about the nature of light in relation to the following terms: o Electromagnetic radiation spectrum o Light Spectrum Wavelengths o Photons o Visible Spectrum and Peak Absorption from Cones and Rods



What is the difference between light transmission, light absorption and light reflection?

12.3.1 - Retina 

Describe the structure and the function of the retina.

12.3.2 - Phototransduction 

Explain the process of phototransduction and the process of how the proteins of the eye absorb photons of light and create action potentials to the brain in order to perceive vision.



Describe the structures and functions of the following neural components of the eye: o Retina o Optic disc o Optic chiasm o Fovea



What are photoreceptors and how are they organized on the retina? o What are the different types of photoreceptors? Page 1

BIO 264 o o 

How do we distinguish colors from black and white? What is color blindness?

Explain the Rhodopsin Cycle. In this explanation be sure to thoroughly discuss the following terms and concepts: o Rhodopsin and Iodopsin o Opsin o Retinal o Transducin o Phosphodiesterase o cGMP o Bipolar cell o Ganglion cell o Glutamate o Bleaching

Take Quiz 12.3

Page 2

BIO 264

Section 12.4: Study Guide Section 12.4 Objectives:

9

Describe the structures of the ear and how they relate to sound transduction.

9

Explain how the ear distinguishes between sound, pitch and loudness

9

Describe how the semicircular canals and the otolith organs are associated with balance.

12.4 – THE INNER EAR: SENSE OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM 12.4.1 – The Nature of Sound  x

Recall what sound waves are and the frequency of sound waves that humans can normally hear. How is sound loudness measured and what are some maximal values before we expect damage to occur?

12.4.2: The Hearing Apparatus 

Recognize the location and function of the structures that make up the hearing and equilibrium organ systems.

12.4.3 – Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials 

Explain the mechanisms of sound transduction. In this explanation, be sure to thoroughly discuss the following concepts and terms: o How are sound wave in air conducted to the inner ear? o How are sounds of different frequencies detected? o How are the mechanical vibrations converted to action potentials?

12.4.4 - The Sense of Balance and Equilibrium 

Discuss equilibrium. In this discussion, be sure to thoroughly explain the following terms and concepts: o Vestibular apparatus o Semicircular canals o Static labyrinth Page 1

BIO 264 o o o o o o o o

Kinetic labyrinth Otolith organs Otoliths Macula Saccule and Utricle Ampulla Crista Cupula

Take Quiz 12.4

Page 2

Study Guide Review for the Comprehensive Final Bio 264 1. Review terminology, abbreviations, prefixes, suffixes and directional terms. 2. Review homeostasis, including negative and positive feedback. Be able to describe all the components of the system and how they function together.

3. Review atomic structure. Include descriptions of protons, neutrons and electrons and their characteristics. Describe atomic number, atomic mass and isotopes.

4. Understand bonding and the role that electrons play in determining what type of bond will occur.

5. Review the characteristics of water and which substances will dissolve or dissociate in water. Be familiar with terms like hydrophobic and hydrophilic and polar and non-polar. 6. Review solute concentrations in terms of molarity and osmolarity. What is the molecular mass and molar mass of glucose (C6H12O 6)? 7. Review acids and bases and the role and function of buffers (particularly the bicarbonate buffer system below). Understand pH and what it represents including the normal values for blood pH.

H 2CO3 H+ HCO3 + Carbonic Hydrogen Bicarbonate Acid Ion Ion

8. Review carbohydrates, including monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides as well as amylose, amylopectin, and glycogen. Recall the basic structure and ratio of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in carbs and how that differs from fats.

9. Describe the types of lipids and their properties. (triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol/steroids, and lipoproteins).

10. Describe the differences in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and cis vs. trans bonds.

11. Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of protein. 12. Review the basic structure of an amino acid and how they combine to form dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides and proteins.

13. Review the basic cellular organelles and their functions. Be able to describe the process of protein synthesis from start to end.

14. Recall the structure and characteristics of the plasma membrane and how it functions as a semipermeable membrane. Describe the types of proteins of the plasma membrane and their functions. 15. Be able to explain the difference between passive and facilitated diffusion and any proteins involved in these processes. 16. Be able to differentiate primary vs secondary active transport as well as bulk transport. 17. Describe osmosis in the context of osmolarity and tonicity. Be able to identify the direction of water movement in different situations.

18. Describe resting membrane potential and be able to explain what forces establish the RMP (electrochemical gradient). What ions are the most influential in establishing the RMP and what would happen if we changed the extracellular concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride? Predict what would happen if we changed the permeability of the plasma membrane to any of those ions.

19. Review the role of the sodium/potassium pump.

20. Describe an action potential in terms of depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, graded potentials, threshold. Make sure that you can explain the role of leak channels, ligand gated channels, and voltage gated channels. Understand what is happening at any point in the graph below.

21. Explain how an action potential is passed from one neuron to another neuron or a muscle. Differentiate chemical and electrical synapses.

22. Understand the structure of muscle, including the associated connective tissue coverings, from superficial to deep;

23. Describe the neuromuscular junction, including the process of depolarization of the muscle. Be able to describe the role of sodium, calcium, potassium, t-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, SERCA pumps, ligand-gated pumps, voltage-gated pumps, acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, DHP receptors and anything else that I forgot to put here! Know what would happen if you block/inhibit any step of this process or if you facilitate it.

24. Explain excitation-contraction coupling. Basically how does depolarization result in a muscle contracting and then relaxing? What is the role of calcium, troponin, tropomyosisn, actin, myosin, ATP? 25. Describe the sliding filament theory.

26. Describe the characteristics of slow and fast twitch muscles.

27. Remember this image? Know what is happening starting at one molecule of glucose and ending at ATP production from ATP-synthase. Keep track of the ATP produced, NADH, FADH2, CO2 from each step.

28. Review how we can use fats and proteins and where they fit into the diagram above. 29. Review reflex arcs and specifically how the stretch, golgi tendon, withdrawal and crossed extensor reflexes work. Don’t forget the role of reciprocal inhibition.

30. Differentiate the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as sensory division vs motor division.

31. Understand the role of the somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the motor division. Be able to diagram out the pre and postganglionic neurons, the neurotransmitters used and receptor types at each synapse. (Cholinerigc: nicotinic vs muscarinic; Adrenergic: alpha and beta) What is different about odds vs evens in terms of receptor types.

32. Explain the effects of an agonist or antagonist on each of the above receptors.

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